Many years ago the country has many small kingdoms. Known very little about of early Licchavi and Thakuri dynasties. The first well-known dynasty, the Malla, was established in AD 1200 and lasted until 1768. King Jayastithi Malla (1382-1395), one of the greatest of Malla kings, established and codified the caste system based on the Indian Model. Another great personality in Nepal’s history was King Bhupatendra Malla (1692-1722), who bilt the fine Nyatapol temle-pagoda and the Bhadgaun temple.
At that time, Nepal was divided in to the several small kingdoms, with the valley’s of Kathmandu was three cities, which is steel popular world heritage site is call Kathmandu, Bhadgaun (Bhaktapur) and Patan, fighting and bickering all the time. These skirmishes enabled the Shaha family, from the small kingdom of Gorkha in central Nepal, to become the strongest power in the region. In 1734 Prithivi Narayan Shaha, a born leader, became the ruler of Gorkha and launched his campaigns against the three kingdoms. Finally, in 1767 he conquered the valley and unified Nepal. However, battles continued until he died in 1775. Several political intrigues undermined this great dynasty which more or less gave Nepal its present border.
In 1839, Jung Bahadur Rana appointed himself Prime Minister and he and his family virtually ruled Nepal for the next 104 years treating the country as their private estate. The Shaha king’s power was reduced and he became a mere puppet, even though he sat on the throne. For the next century the Shaha kings were powerless pampered figureheads, indulged and kept out of politics. During this time, Nepal remained in almost total isolation, closed to outsiders.
After India’s independence in 1947, pressure grew in Nepal for the Ranas to reform the government. Suddenly in 1950, king Tribhuvan fled to India, bringing a series of trouble upon Nepal. The end of the Rana regime was in sight. In 1951, king Tribhuvan returned to Nepal and within a year had taken control again of the country. After his Death in 1955, his son king Mahendra ascended the throne. In 1958, he organized the country’s first free election and later established the first Constitution. However, democracy brought new frictions to the country and 1962, king Mahendra resumed near control of the government. The Constitution text amended in 1980 and is still in used since Birendra Bir Bikram Shaha Dev became king on 31th January in 1972, and remains on the throne, since 1991 as a constitutional monarch of a democracy.